Population development in India since 1960
(Data in millions of inhabitants)India is the country with the second largest population after China. These two countries lead the top of the most populous countries by a considerable margin. In terms of surface area, this is remarkable, as a stately 400 people live in one square kilometer. For comparison, slightly more than half as many live in one square kilometer in Germany, while not even one tenth as many live in a single square kilometer in the in the USA.At the same time, India is a country with extreme urbanization. Only a few people live in the desert and mountain regions, while in the cities there are sometimes more than 25,000 inhabitants per square kilometer. In New York, the figure is just 10,000. About 60 percent of the inhabitants live in the few large cities along the fertile parts of the country. With 40 cities with over a million inhabitants, India is the country with the most large metropolises after China.
Historical development of the population
At the beginning of the 18th century, India had just 137 million inhabitants. This number rose to about 255 million within 100 years and fluctuated by 20 percent up and down during the 18th century. Only since the beginning of the 20th century has population growth increased dramatically, but has been losing some momentum for about 50 years. It is assumed that India will even overtake China by the year 2025 and will then be the most populous country on earth.Although life expectancy in India, at around 68 years is considerably lower than in countries such as the USA (79 years) or Australia (83 years), the birth rate is significantly higher. In the early 70s, every woman gave birth to an average of five children. It is declining slowly and is now just over two children per woman (United States: 1.64). One third of India’s population is now under 15 years old. The average age is just 26 years old.
Reasons for the strong growth
Increasing industrialization and the accompanying improvement of health care and food production processes have had an impact on population growth in India, as well as in many countries over the last century. India also lacks a coordinated basic health care and pension system that is accessible to everyone. Therefore, having as many children as possible is often the only sensible retirement provision that a family can afford. This “contract between generations” is part of a long culture in many predominantly poorer countries.
Annual growth rates in percent
Birth and death rate in India
Population growth is the result of the birth rate, the mortality rate and the migration rate. For example, the year 2021 in the graph: The population in India increased by about 11,177,000 inhabitants. In the same year, the death rate was 9.4 per 1,000 people (~ 13,193,000 deaths) and the birth rate was 16.4 per 1,000 people (~ 22,927,000 births). As a result, around 1,443,000 inhabitants have to be added by migration from other countries.
Over the past 10 years, the number of average deaths per year was 9,586,910 in India. The number of births was 24,262,564 annually.
The changes in births and deaths is displayed in the following graph. All data refer to births or deaths per 1,000 inhabitants.
Birth rate Death rate